If you want to edit data that you've downloaded from OSM into a feature dataset in SDE, you may need to disable versioning of edits. You'll know you need to disable this if you start editing and see a popup window with the following
error: "Start editing encountered one or more layers with errors or warnings and cannot continue". See also below:
To disable versioning of edits, enable the Editor toolbar and click the 'Options' menu, as shown here:
When the "Editing Options" dialog appears, click on the "Versioning" tab. Then, uncheck the box at the top of the Versioning interface that says "Edit a version of the database with the ability to undo and redo", as shown below:
Then click OK to dismiss the dialog, and try to Start Editing again.
Edit OSM Data and Upload to OSM